The APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. The revised 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of the APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the end reference page.
APA In-Text Citation Three Authors Printed Book
List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parenthesis the first time you cite the source. Use the word “and” between the authors’ names within the text and use the ampersand in the parenthesis.
(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, & Harlow, 1993)
For the first in-text citation, if the authors are part of the sentence, cite the year in parenthesis
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Smith, Grierson, and Nicholson (2000) found …
When the citation is placed within parentheses include all the authors’ names. Separate each author and the year with a comma. Include the year in all parenthethical citations within a paragraph. (APA 6th, pp. 174, 177)
According to evidence … (Smith, Grierson, & Nicholson, 2000)
Subsequent mention within the same paragraph
The study concluded … (Smith et al., 2000)
If a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs in-text and in subsequent citations, only include the surname of the first author followed by et al. Include all names in the end text. (APA 6th, pp. 175, 184)
In-text First mention
(Quinlan, Bohle, & Lamm, 2010).
Quinlan, Bohle, and Lamm (2010) stated that …
Rogers, Finney, and Myers (2004) presented participants with conflicting information.
Participants in the study were presented with conflicting information (Rogers, Finney, & Myers, 2004).
In-text Subsequent mention
(Quinlan et al, 2010).
Quinlan et al. (2010) stated that …
Rogers et al. (2004) found that the subjects were unable to make decisions.
The subjects in the study were unable to make decisions (Rogers et al., 2004).
APA exception to the rule
To tell the references apart, can cite as many authors as necessary. If two references of more than three surnames, published in the same year, shorten to the same form, cite the first surname, and as many of the subsequent authors’ surnames as necessary to differentiate the two references, followed by a comma and et al. (APA 6th, p.175)
Ireys, Chernoff, De Vet, and Kim, (2001) …
Ireys, Chernoff, Stein, De Vet, and Silver (2001) …
As an in-text citation, both shorten to Ireys et al. (2001), which does not distinguish between the two references in-text
Ireys, Chernoff, De Vet, et al. (2001)
Ireys, Chernoff, Stein, et al. (2001)
APA End Reference Citation Three Authors Printed Book
List by last names and initials; commas separate author names, while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand.
Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., & Bach, J. S. (1993). APA
guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Quinlan, M., Bohle, P., & Lamm, F. (2010). Managing occupational
health and safety: A multidisciplinary approach (3rd ed.). South Yarra, Australia: Palgrave Macmillan.
Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., & White, L.A. (1993). My referencing
guide. Australia: Palgrave Macmillan.