Ageing is characterized by decrements in maximum function and the accumulation of mitochondrial DNA mutations, wherein the oxygen radicals have been increasingly considered partly responsible for these changes. Free radicals are atoms with unpaired electrons. They can be formed through this natural process, but they can also be caused by diet, stress, smoking, alcohol, exercise, inflammation drugs and exposure to the sun or air pollutants. The free radicals damage cells in an organism and cause ageing. On the other hand, the antioxidants soak up the free radicals the way sponges do. The antioxidants minimize the free radical damage, but you can get the full benefits only if you eat real plants and other foods.
The free radical theory of ageing asserts that many of the changes that occur as our bodies age are caused by free radicals. Damage to DNA, protein cross linking and other changes have been attributed to free radicals. Over time, this damage accumulates and causes us to experience ageing.
Regardless, it is a good idea to eat a healthy diet, not smoke, limit alcohol intake, get plenty of exercise and avoid air pollution and direct exposure to the sun. Taking these measures can slow down the production of free radicals and good for your overall health.
One cell culture study found that a glutathione depletion causes cell death. The loss of glutathione and oxidative damage have been suggested to constitute early, possibly signaling events in apoptotic cell death.
Oxidative stress may be initiated by a decline in the antioxidative defense system or other factors causing the decrease concentrations of antioxidants. An oxidative stress occurs due to an imbalance between production of the free radicals and the effectiveness of the body’s antioxidant defense.
The oxidative stress has been implicated to play a role in ageing and many pathological diseases, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, atherosclerosis, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. One of the ways in which oxidative stress can be monitored is by checking the ration of GSH to GSSG.
In simpler words, the oxidative stress refers to the imbalance between the oxidants and the antioxidants. The same free radicals generated during oxidative stress are produced during normal metabolism, which triggers cytotoxic actions of the immune system cells, aging, and age related degenerative diseases or inflammatory responses.
With the help of antioxidants, you can actually prevent free radical formation, repair the oxidative damage, increase the elimination of damaged molecules and prevent transformed cells from arising by promoting the death of cells that have an excessively damaged DNA. If the body’s mechanisms are working correctly, it should be able to cope with oxidative stress and maintain homeostasis.
Your cells have formidable defenses that operate at different levels within cells against the oxidative damage. To enhance the body’s immune system, you need the powerful effects of the glutathione antioxidant so you can make it part of your antiaging skincare.
Maintaining your health is not easy considering all the environmental toxins and toxins you put yourself from your day to day activities. The glutathione deficiency may result from certain disease conditions or genetic disorders.
Glutathione is an important antioxidant that prevents damage to important cellular components. Because of its wide range of uses in the body, it is essential to prevent glutathione levels from becoming low.
Regulation of the glutathione metabolism is critical in ensuring optimal health and preventing wrinkles. The glutathione reduces the amount of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in the body. Glutathione directly scavenges diverse oxidants and also, recycles Vitamins C and E.
Avoid stress, keep your glutathione levels up
The levels of your GSH may be depleted by certain chemical inhibitors or as a result of external stress factors. The levels of glutathione in the body may be reduced by a number of factors that include poor nutrition, environmental toxins and stress.
Oxidative stress is implicated in both depression and anxiety. This highlights the importance of relating oxidative stress to specific symptoms and some affective disorders.
However, when we talk about stress in day to day life, we are not talking about disorders, because now it is part of life, which may reflect in the form of aging and not disorders. Disorders are present when some of the stressors continuously act over a period of time and start to show up in the form of certain symptoms that may affect efficiency, mood, sleep and appetite.
What are its physiological consequences? Diseases associated with GSH deficiency are Parkinson’s disease, AIDS, cystic fibrosis, age related macular degeneration or ARMD, and many more diseases found as a result of a variety of factors.
Protein mediated GSH depletion, increased production of free radicals, and inflammatory reactions are some of the common factors found to cause leading deaths and diseases today. To combat the biochemical changes which occur as a result of stress, there is an antioxidant defense in the biological system.
Anxiety and depression
Recently, the expression of glutathione was reported to be correlated with anxiety related phenotypes. Other studies have reported the involvement of oxidative stress in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, hypertension and depression.
Antioxidant therapy could be an alternative option to combat anxiety disorders. A diverse range of natural and synthetic antioxidants may help in the design of therapeutics.
Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. It is the result of impaired cognitive and motor functions.
Its pathogenesis has been closely associated with oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species and actions of free radicals. One of the factors linked to cell death is GSH deficiency.
Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Several studies show significant decreases in plasma, lung epithelial lining fluid, and T lymphocytes among patients with AIDS. This suggests that HIV infection is often accompanied with systemic deficiency of extracellular GSH.
One should know that deficiency of GSH could actually lead to overall depression of the immune functions that accelerates disease progression and HIV replication.
Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder of severe lung dysfunction. The mutation caused by the severe lung dysfunction alters the ion transport protein and the CF transmembrane conductance regulator.
The dysfunction results to poor maintenance of the cellular balance ions. The hallmark of CF is a systemic GSH deficiency, which results in inflammation and oxidative stress, thereby damaging several components of the cells.
Therapeutic approaches involve administration of intravenous or oral GSH and administration of NAC. Oral administration of NAC is found to be beneficial for the patient.
Age Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD)
ARMD is a retinal degenerative disease leading to visual impairment among the elderly. This is usually characterized by hyperpigmentation or depigmentation of the retina usually in dry or wet forms.
Elevating the levels of GSH helps enhance the immune system and is seen essential to treating disease conditions characterized by decreased GSH levels. Enhance immune system by elevating GSH levels to help cells resist oxidative damage and fight actions of toxic compounds.
Here, GSH is not properly transported to cells and is being rapidly degraded in the gut and circulation. The importance of glutathione has been validated by over 92,000 scientific articles. In fact, nutrition experts believed it is just as necessary for health as food and water.
Basically, aging is caused by the reactions and impacts of the free radicals. Without modulation, this would lead to disease and eventual death.
Unfortunately, the overall defense capacity of the human body also undergoes an aging process similar to the age related cellular deterioration. The decline is particularly crucial to survival.
The oxidative insults definitely increase in a progressive manner with age. The oxidative stress is considered to be the cornerstone of the biochemical pathways that leads to chronological aging and photoaging.
Based on the concept of the free radical theory of aging, the oxidative stress seems to increase with age, while the endogenous antioxidant system becomes less effective. Yes, I agree this is quite a disaster, because developing free radicals result in the promotion of the degradation of the collagen, elastin, and they hyaluronic acid.
Aging skin care wrinkle treatment
In select cellular respiration anti aging approaches, antioxidants have the ability to regulate the transfer of electrons or quench the free radicals escaping from the ETC. They mitigate and prevent oxidative damage and the related effects on the mitochondrial functions.
Great examples of antioxidants that I used are the glutathione, CoQ10, and resveratrol. Intracellular and extracellular oxidative stress initiative by reactive oxygen species advance skin aging, which is characterized by wrinkles and atypical pigmentation.
CoQ10. CoQ10 is an antioxidant found in the mitochondria. It carries the electrons in the ETC.
Its level in the skin declines with age and UV stress. The ingestion of CoQ10 prevents skin aging and its topical application helps reduce wrinkle depth and level of oxidation in vivo.
Glutathione. Glutathione is a water soluble antioxidant present in the cell that prevents the oxidation of Vitamin E and Vitamin C. Several studies have demonstrated age dependent changes in the glutathione content.
Evidences suggest the important role it plays in the mitochondrial physiology. Aging involves a response to oxidative stress and antioxidant status in the liver.
Increases of the DNA lesions occur in the liver during aging. An acute oxidative stress causes mitochondrial swelling.
The glutathione protects the body from the effects of the free radicals. The mitochondrial glutathione plays a key role in the protection against oxidative damage associated with aging.
The mitochondrial DNA is especially susceptible to oxidative damage and mutation. It lacks the protective repair systems.
The oxidative damage of the mitochondrial DNA is directly related to the oxidation of the mitochondrial glutathione. Studies have revealed the oral administration may protect against the age associated glutathione depletion and also, prevent neuromuscular coordination.
Administration of antioxidants still requires further research and may not be applied to certain groups of the population. One study concluded the administration of Beta carotene in smokers increases the incidence of cancer.
Another study concluded the administration of Vitamin E in old patients increases the acute response of neutrophils during exercise.
The administration of some, but not all antioxidants may prevent oxidative stress and the physiological impairment associated with aging. Further studies are needed to know the adequate doses that would provide maximum beneficial effect.
Abraham, L. S. (2009). A study of the beneficial role of thiol antioxidant supplementation in various forms of glutathione deficiency. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest LLC.
Farage, M. A., Miller, K. W., & Maibach, H. I. (2010). Textbook of aging skin. Heidelberg: Springer.
Kumpulainen, J. T., & Salonen, J. T. (1999). Natural antioxidants and anticarcinogens in nutrition, health and disease. Cambridge, UK: The Royal Society of Chemistry.
The antioxidants not only help combat the elements responsible for the visible signs of aging, but also can calm the skin, help reveal a more youthful appearance and revitalize dull looking skin. Inside your body, an army of antioxidants is protecting you from the forces of aging and disease.
Antioxidants do more than rescue cells in distress. They reduce damage caused by free radicals or prevent it from occurring. Antioxidants play a crucial role in skin health and the aging process.
Start reversing aging now with glutathione. Aging is the result of oxidative stress in which the production of free radicals is out of balance with the more protective antioxidants.
The more oxidative stress, the quicker you age. It damages the cells and shortens telomeres. When they shorten, you age more quickly and are vulnerable to more disease.
The glutathione works to protect your looks! It is the mother of all antioxidants. It is absolutely necessary in making your wrinkles disappear. One way to increase your glutathione levels naturally is to eat more foods rich in sulfur such as garlic, onion and cruciferous vegetables.
No matter how hard we deny it, aging brings a lot of uncertainties and fears. The physical changes can be overwhelming. Aside from detoxifying and reducing free radicals, the glutathione protects the skin cells from the UVA and UVB radiations. It appears that your glutathione level could turn out to be one of the premiere biological markers of aging. Actually, it has been proven to reduce wrinkles and dry spots.